The ISO/IEC 14443 standard is a four-part international standard for contact-less smart cards operating at 13.56 MHz in close proximity (~10cm) with a reader antenna. This ISO standard describes the modulation and transmission protocols between card and reader to create interoperability for contact-less smart card products. There are two main communication protocols supported by the ISO/IEC 14443 standard, they are addressed as Type A and Type B. Most High Frequency (13.56 MHz) proximity tags are using these guidelines for their communication.